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A number of definitions of cyberwarfare have been proposed, with no single definition being widely adopted internationally. Richard A. Clarke defines it as “actions by a nation-state to penetrate another nation’s computers or networks for the purposes of causing damage or disruption.”:Martin Libicki defines two types of cyberwarfare: Strategic and operational, with strategic being “a campaign of cyberattacks one entity carries out on another”, whilst operational cyberwarfare “involves the use of cyberattacks on the other side’s military in the context of a physical war.”

Other definitions include non-state actors, such as terrorist groups, companies, political or ideological extremist groups, terrorist hacktivists, and transnational criminal organizations.

Some governments have made it an integral part of their overall military strategy, with some having invested heavily in cyberwarfare capability.One kind of cyberwarfare involves the kind of hacking that is the concern of penetration testing; in such cases, a government entity has established it as a warfighting capability, or a non-governmental entity has used it as a weapon against a state or its concerns.

This capability uses the same set of penetration testing methodologies but applies them, in the case of United States doctrine, in a strategic way to:

Prevent cyber attacks against critical infrastructure.
Reduce national vulnerability to cyber attacks.
Minimize damage and recovery time from cyber attacks.
Offensive operations are also part of these national level strategies for officially declared wars as well as undeclared secretive operations.

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Psychological operations (PSYOP) are operations to convey selected information and indicators to audiences to influence their emotions, motives, and objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of governments, organizations, groups, and individuals.

The purpose of United States psychological operations is to induce or reinforce behavior favorable to U.S. objectives. They are an important part of the range of diplomatic, informational, military and economic activities available to the U.S. They can be utilized during both peacetime and conflict. There are three main types: strategic, operational and tactical. Strategic PSYOP include informational activities conducted by the U.S. government agencies outside of the military arena, though many utilize Department of Defense (DOD) assets. Operational PSYOP are conducted across the range of military operations, including during peacetime, in a defined operational area to promote the effectiveness of the joint force commander’s (JFC) campaigns and strategies. Tactical PSYOP are conducted in the area assigned to a tactical commander across the range of military operations to support the tactical mission against opposing forces.

PSYOP can encourage popular discontent with the opposition’s leadership and by combining persuasion with a credible threat, degrade an adversary’s ability to conduct or sustain military operations. They can also disrupt, confuse, and protract the adversary’s decision-making process, undermining command and control.[1] When properly employed, PSYOP have the potential to save the lives of friendly or enemy forces by reducing the adversary’s will to fight. By lowering the adversary’s morale and then its efficiency, PSYOP can also discourage aggressive actions by creating disaffection within their ranks, ultimately leading to surrender.

The integrated employment of the core capabilities of electronic warfare, computer network operations, psychological operations, military deception, and operations security, in concert with specified supporting and related capabilities, to influence, disrupt, corrupt or usurp adversarial human and automated decision making while protecting our own.

Between 2010 and 2014, PSYOP was renamed Military Information Support Operations (MISO), then briefly renamed PSYOP in Aug 2014, only to return to MISO shortly thereafter in 2015.

Cyberterrorism is the use of the Internet to conduct violent acts that result in, or threaten, loss of life or significant bodily harm, in order to achieve political or ideological gains through threat or intimidation. It is also sometimes considered an act of Internet terrorism where terrorist activities, including acts of deliberate, large-scale disruption of computer networks, especially of personal computers attached to the Internet by means of tools such as computer viruses, computer worms, phishing, and other malicious software and hardware methods and programming scripts.

Cyberterrorism is a controversial term. Some authors opt for a very narrow definition, relating to deployment by known terrorist organizations of disruption attacks against information systems for the primary purpose of creating alarm, panic, or physical disruption. Other authors prefer a broader definition, which includes cybercrime. Participating in a cyberattack affects the terror threat perception, even if it isn’t done with a violent approach.[1] By some definitions, it might be difficult to distinguish which instances of online activities are cyberterrorism or cybercrime.

Cyberterrorism can be also defined as the intentional use of computers, networks, and public internet to cause destruction and harm for personal objectives. Experienced cyberterrorists, who are very skilled in terms of hacking can cause massive damage to government systems, hospital records, and national security programs, which might leave a country, community or organization in turmoil and in fear of further attacks. The objectives of such terrorists may be political or ideological since this can be considered a form of terror.

There is much concern from government and media sources about potential damage that could be caused by cyberterrorism, and this has prompted efforts by government agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to put an end to cyber attacks and cyberterrorism.

There have been several major and minor instances of cyberterrorism. Al-Qaeda utilized the internet to communicate with supporters and even to recruit new members.[5] Estonia, a Baltic country which is constantly evolving in terms of technology, became a battleground for cyberterror in April, 2007 after disputes regarding the removal of a WWII soviet statue located in Estonia’s capital Tallinn.

Assigning a concrete definition to cyberterrorism can be hard, due to the difficulty of defining the term terrorism itself. Multiple organizations have created their own definitions, most of which are overly[quantify] broad. There is also controversy concerning overuse of the term, hyperbole in the media and by security vendors trying to sell “solutions”.

One way of understanding cyberterrorism involves the idea that terrorists could cause massive loss of life, worldwide economic chaos and environmental damage by hacking into critical infrastructure systems.The nature of cyberterrorism covers conduct involving computer or Internet technology that:[18][need quotation to verify.

is motivated by a political, religious or ideological cause
is intended to intimidate a government or a section of the public to varying degrees
seriously interferes with infrastructure
The term “cyberterrorism” can be used in a variety of different ways, but there are limits to its use. An attack on an Internet business can be labeled[by whom?] cyberterrorism, however when it is done for economic motivations rather than ideological it is typically regarded as cybercrime.[19] Convention also limits the label “cyberterrorism” to actions by individuals, independent groups, or organizations. Any form of cyberwarfare conducted by governments and states would be regulated and punishable under international law.

The Technolytics Institute defines cyberterrorism as

“[t]he premeditated use of disruptive activities, or the threat thereof, against computers and/or networks, with the intention to cause harm or further social, ideological, religious, political or similar objectives. Or to intimidate any person in furtherance of such objectives.”

The term appears first in defense literature, surfacing (as “cyber-terrorism”) in reports by the U.S. Army War College as early as 1998.

The National Conference of State Legislatures, an organization of legislators created to help policymakers in the United States of America with issues such as economy and homeland security defines cyberterrorism as:

[T]he use of information technology by terrorist groups and individuals to further their agenda. This can include use of information technology to organize and execute attacks against networks, computer systems and telecommunications infrastructures, or for exchanging information or making threats electronically. Examples are hacking into computer systems, introducing viruses to vulnerable networks, web site defacing, Denial-of-service attacks, or terroristic threats made via electronic communication.

NATO defines cyberterrorism as “[a] cyberattack using or exploiting computer or communication networks to cause sufficient destruction or disruption to generate fear or to intimidate a society into an ideological goal”.

The United States National Infrastructure Protection Center defined cyberterrorism as:

“A criminal act perpetrated by the use of computers and telecommunications capabilities resulting in violence, destruction, and/or disruption of services to create fear by causing confusion and uncertainty within a given population, with the goal of influencing a government or population to conform to a political, social, or ideological agenda.

The FBI, another United States agency, defines “cyber terrorism” as “premeditated, politically motivated attack against information, computer systems, computer programs, and data which results in violence against non-combatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents”.

These definitions tend to share the view of cyberterrorism as politically and/or ideologically inclined. One area of debate is the difference between cyberterrorism and hacktivism. Hacktivism is ”the marriage of hacking with political activism”.[26] Both actions are politically driven and involve using computers, however cyberterrorism is primarily used to cause harm. It becomes an issue because acts of violence on the computer can be labeled[by whom?] either[citation needed] cyberterrorism or hacktivism.

Cyberwarfare is a broad term describing the use of technological force within cyberspace.[1] ‘Cyberwarfare’ does not imply scale, protraction or violence which are typically associated with the term ‘war’. There is significant debate among experts regarding the definition of cyberwarfare, and even if such a thing exists. The term ‘Cyberwarfare’ is a misnomer, to date no offensive cyber actions could be described as ‘war’. Offensive cyber actions, such as those in Estonia in 2007, Georgia in 2008, Iran in 2010, North Kore. have occurred in the context of international relations, only resulting in condemnation and denial by sides.

Cyberwarfare may not meet the typical definition of the term war, however, many states including the United States, United Kingdom, Russia, China, Israel, Iran, North Korea and Vietnam have active cyber operations for offensive and defensive operations. As states explore the use of cyber operations and combine capabilities the likelihood of physical confrontation and violence playing out as a result of, or part of, a cyber operation is increased. However, meeting the scale and protracted nature of war is unlikely, thus ambiguity remains.

The first instance of kinetic force used in response to a cyber-attack resulting in the loss of human life was observed on May 5, 2019. Israel Defense Forces targeted and destroyed a building associated with an on-going cyber-attack.

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